What is Hernia?

Hernia is a condition that occurs when the tissues protrude out of their residing cavity area in which it is normally contained. These are usually portions of the abdominal fatty tissue or the intestine. These break through due to a defect in the encapsulating walls of the abdomen. Where it is the most common occurrence in the abdomen, a hernia can also occur in the groin, belly button, and upper thigh areas.

Benefits of reduction of a hernia are mitigation of associated symptoms so that adverse outcomes such as strangulation can be avoided. A manual reduction helps in circumventing inevitable surgical repair.

Categorizing hernias

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Hernias are broadly divided into two categories: the upper abdomen and the groin area and each of them is further classified into multiple types.

Groin hernias Groin hernias are made up of

  • Indirect inguinal hernia, which is very common and passes through the internal inguinal ring
  • Direct inguinal hernia, which passes through the fascial wall of the abdomen
  • Femoral hernia, which passes through the transveralis fascia and the femoral canal.

Abdominal hernias Abdominal hernias are made up of

  • Umbilical hernia, common among infants
  • Epigastric hernia, which is a midline hernia passing through the linea alba
  • Spigelian hernia, which is rare and occurs at the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis
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Signs and Symptoms of hernia

Hernias are generally asymptomatic, producing no symptoms though they can cause mild pain. There is a risk of strangulation ??? a risk of blood supply being cut off. This happens when the contents bulge out and apply considerable pressure on the blood vessels, which are constricted, causing the blood supply to be cut off. The situation requires a medical emergency.

Hernias have a range of symptoms ??? It may be a painless lump or even a severely painful swelling, tender and visible tissue protrusion that is unable to be pushed back.

Symptoms of reducible hernia

  • Appears as a lump in the abdominal or groin area
  • Painful
  • Not tender
  • Size of the lump increases when standing or when there is increased abdominal pressure such as coughing
  • It can be pushed back into the abdomen

Symptoms of irreducible hernia or incarcerated hernia

  • Enlargement of a previous reducible hernia
  • Occasionally painful
  • Cannot be pushed back into the abdominal cavity
  • Chronic but not painful
  • Symptoms of bowel obstruction such as nausea and vomiting

Symptoms of strangulated hernia

  • Irreducible hernia with blood supply cut off
  • Painful and tender
  • Symptoms of bowel obstruction
  • The condition is indicative of a surgical emergency


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